This European Standard specifies requirements for helmets for canoeing and white water sports for use in waters of classes 1 to 4 as classified by Clause 4. The levels of protection recognise that most fatalities in canoeing and white water sports result from drowning after concussion and not from brain damage. This European Standard is not intended to apply to helmets for use in extreme white water situations such as those where the jumping of high waterfalls is undertaken, because the need for impact absorption for such a helmet, and the area of the head to be protected, are greater than those for most canoeing and white water sports. The standard applies to helmets with and without holes in the shell. NOTE – This European Standard does not provide performance requirements for visors, chin-guards or face-guards.