This European Standard specifies the characteristics of axles for use on European networks. It defines characteristics of forged or rolled solid and hollow axles, made from vacuum-degassed steel grade EA1N1 that is the most commonly used grade on European networks. For hollow axles, this standard applies only to those that are manufactured by machining of a hole in a forged or rolled solid axle In addition, the particular characteristics for axles in grade EA1T1 and EA4T1 are given in Annex A. Two categories of axle are defined, category 1 and category 2. Generally, category 1 is chosen when the operational speed is higher than 200 km/h. This standard is applicable to axles that are designed in accordance with the requirements of EN 13103 and EN 13104. NOTE – Different values for some characteristics may be agreed if a particular process of fabrication (e.g. cold rolling, shot peening, shot peening, steel cleanliness, reduction ratio, improved material properties from melting and heat treatment processes, etc.) has an influence on them.