This European Standard is applicable to all surface dressings (roads, airfields and other trafficked areas) and specifies qualitative and quantitative methods of the visual assessment of defects of surface dressing. The results of the qualitative evaluation carried out by visual assessment when specified shall be reported in annex A. This is a rapid practical test and may be specified as the primary test so that if the results are obvious or are without any doubt the more time consuming quantitative test method may be avoided. The quantitative test method shall be carried out when specified and the table of results in annex B reported. The visual assessment reports for both methods have identical records and thus both may be used to check the specification for visual assessment of defects (prEN 12271-4). The rapid qualitative test methods is dependent on the skill and experience of the operator and therefore the repeatability and the reproducibility values will not be as precise, but the convenience of the method and lack of disruption to traffic will ensure its use. The national application document may state whether either or both or sequentially the qualitative and quantitative tests are to be used and may relate this to types of site (for example lightly trafficked roads may not be required to be quantitatively assessed). The test may be used to evaluate the durability or performance of a surface dressing. For example fretting may indicate poor adhesion of the binder to chippings.